Hydraulic systems are extremely important to the operation of heavy equipment. Hydraulic principles are used when designing hydraulic implement systems, steering systems, brake systems, power assisted steering, power train systems and automatic transmissions. An understanding of the basic hydraulic principles must be accomplished before continuing into machine systems.
Pascal′s Law, framed by Blaise Pascal, states that “Pressure applied to any part of a confined fluid transmits to every other part with no loss. The pressure acts with equal force on all equal areas of the confining walls and perpendicular to the walls." This is the basic principle for any hydraulic system.
In hydraulic systems, forces that are applied by the liquid are transmitted to a mechanical mechanism. Hydraulics is the study of liquids in motion and pressure in pipes and cylinders.
"A simple hydraulic system consists of hydraulic fluid, pistons or rams, cylinders, accumulator or oil reservoir, a complete working mechanism, and safety devices. These systems are capable of remotely controlling a wide variety of equipment by transmitting force, carried by the hydraulic fluid, in a confined medium. Modern developments in hydraulics have involved many fields in engineering and transportation. These systems transfer high forces rapidly and accurately even in small pipes of light weight, small size, any shape, and over a long distance. These systems play a vital role from small car′s steering to super sonic aircraft’s maneuvering devices. More powerful and accurate systems are also used in maneuvering huge ships."
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