Types of Welds

There are many types of welds. The most common types are the bead, surfacing, plug, slot, fillet, and groove.
1. A weld Bead is a weld deposit produced by a single pass with one of the welding processes. A weld bead may be either narrow or wide, depending on the amount of transverse oscillation (side-to-side movement) used by the welder. A weld bead made without much weaving motion is often referred to as a stringer bead. On the other hand, a weld bead made with side-to-side oscillation is called a weave bead.

2. Several weld beads applied side-by-side are usually used in Surfacing which is a welding process used to apply a hard, wear-resistant layer of metal to surfaces or edges of worn- out parts.

3. A Fillet weld is triangular in shape and this weld is used to join two surfaces that are at approximately right angles to each other in a lap, tee, or comer joint.

4. Plug and Slot welds are welds made through holes or slots in one member of a lap joint. These welds are used to join that member to the surface of another member that has been exposed through the hole.

5. Groove welds (also may be referred to as Butt welds) are simply welds made in the groove between two members to be joined. The weld is adaptable to a variety of butt joints, as seen in the figure.

=> Groove welds may be joined with one or more weld beads, depending on the thickness of the metal. If two or more beads are deposited in the groove, the weld is made with multiple-pass layers, as shown in the figure. As a rule, a multiple-pass layer is made with stringer beads in manual operations.

=> The buildup sequence refers to the order in which the beads of a multiple-pass weld are deposited in the joint. Usually, before adding the next pass, the previous pass needs to cool down to a certain temperature which is called the inter-pass temperature. Also, before adding the next pass, the surface of the previous pass needs to be cleaned from slag, especially with SMAW, using a wire brush or other appropriate method.

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